Название: Англійська мова

Жанр: Англійська мова

Просмотров: 8366


Medicinal plants

Since time immemorial man has known about the medicinal properties of plants and widely used them for practical purposes.

Different parts of theplant may be used for medicinal purposes: roots and rhizomes, stems and leaves, flowers and inflorescences, fruits and seeds. All these parts are worth collecting in a certain period of time.

It is well known that the proper time of harvesting or collecting plants and herbs is during that period when active constituents of the plant are highest in their number and quality. Roots and rhizomes are collected in autumn after the vegetative processes have finished. Bark is collected in spring before these processes begin. Leaves and flowering tops are collected when photosynthesis is the most active, which is usually about the time of flowering and before the maturing of the fruit and seed. Flowers are collected in the time of pollination. Fruits may be collected either before or after the ripening period. Seeds may be collected when fully matured.

All parts of the plant differ as to the shape, taste, colour, odour, and pharmacological activity.

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Many of the most useful plants and the time of their collecting were known and used in the treatment of certain diseases in antiquity long time before the development of sciences. Based on the results of observations and experience of many generations, folk medicine serves to some extend as the source of scientific medicine. The unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy were used as painkillers in ancient Greece. Garlic was known to man 5000 years ago. Disco-rides, a Greek physician of the second century, prescribed garlic for all lung and intestinal diseases. Hippocrates added that it was effective as a laxative and diuretic. Many medicinal plants were used for the prevention and curing of diseases by the ancient Slavs. The medieval physician Avicenna recommended especially the so-called Rues' medicines. Folk medicine compasses a wide variety of medicinal remedies and medications.

Medicinal plants, an integral part of folk medicine, are widely cultivated in Ukraine. Many successful remedies and resources of folk medicine are worth studying for using them in scientific medicine.

Запитання до тексту

1. What parts of medicinal plants are used for medicinal purposes? 2. What is the time of collecting bark? 3. When is it recommended to collect fruits? 4. When was garlic known as a medicinal plant?

5. What did the ancient Slavs use medicinal plants for? 6. What physicians of antiquity do you know? 7. What is the role of folk medicine nowadays?

III. Прочитайте речення та скажіть, які з них відповідають змісту текста.

1. Medicinal properties of plants have been known to man only recently. 2. All parts of plants may be used for medicinal p'irposes. 3. Roots and rhizomes are collected after the vegetative processes have finished. 4. Folk medicine is based on the results of the scientific investigations. 5. All parts of plants differ in pharmacological activity.

6. Many medicinal plants are cultivated in Ukraine.

IV. Складіть запитання до підкреслених слів.

I. The roots have two main functions. 2. Carrots and radishes have a taproot system. 3. Grass is useful on hillsides because its fibrous roots hold soil well. 4. In some species water is stored in the leaves. 5. Poplar trees have simple leaves. 6. To produce seeds theplant must have flowers.

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V. Складіть запитання, до яких ці речення будуть відповідями.

1. Since time immemorial man has known about the medicinal properties of plants. 2. All parts of plants are collected in a certain period of time. 3. All parts of the plant differ as to the shape, taste, colour, odour. 4. Garlic was prescribed for all lung and intestinal diseases. 5. The medieval physician Avicenna recommended especially the so-called Russ' medicines.

VI. Опишіть яку-небудь лікарську рослину, її зовнішній вигляд, ботанічніособливостіїїбудови,її лікарські властивості. Зробіть це у вигляді загадки для ваших одногрупників.

VII. Складіть одне речення з двох поданих. Запам'ятайте, що після словосполучень it's (not) worth; it's no use (good) вживається герундій.

MODEL 1: Don't repeat this experiment. It's no use. //'s no use repeating this experiment.

1. Don't ask him these questions. It's no use. 2. Don't argue with the teacher. It's no good. 3. Don't waste much money on food. It's no good. 4. Don't miss your classes. It's no good. 5. Don't collect this herb in autumn. It's no use.

MODEL 2: I recommend you to discuss this article. It is interesting. This article is worth discussing.

1.1 recommend you to visit the exhibition in folk medicine. It is interesting. 2.1 advise you to drink the herb tea. It's useful. 3.1 recommend you to attend lectures in pharmacognosy. They are interesting. 4. You should repair your watch. It's good. 5.1 advise you to put on a warm coat. It's cold.

VIII. Використавши активну лексику уроку, складіть три речення з конструкціями it's (not) worth; it's no use (good).

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